Mobile technologies have wide application in the recent economies, in undertaking of the various transactions. The performance of any organization or institution in the current world highly depends on the use of mobile technologies. Mobile technology is simply a technology that is portable, and it includes the use of mobile phones and laptops among other technologies. The concept of mobile technology is found within the information technology. It involves the application of information communication technology. This chapter seeks to analyze information technology systems in respect to their application, both in the developed and the developing economies.
Definitions of Information Technology Systems
According to the online dictionary the term information technology system may be defined as any aspect of life that deals with computing technologies. This includes the software, hardware, and the internet in the networking processes. Other professionals define information technology as an engineering branch that incorporates the use of equipments of telecommunications as well as commuters. The American association of technology on information sums up the definition as the application of information systems that are computer based in the various operations of life. The technologies in the information system facilitate the storing and retrieving of information when needed.
Other researchers define information technology system as a technology that involves maintenance, use and development of computer systems for the purposes of data processing and distribution. All these definitions allude to the use of information technology in the dissemination of information. Therefore, information system is defined as the application of technologies that enhance data storage, processing, and dissemination of information through retrieval in enhancing effective performance of entities.
Information system in developing countries
Information systems in developing countries (ISDC) have been advancing. Developing countries are faced with several problems as compared to the developed economies. There is the presence of limited technologies, skills, and finance in the developing countries. Resources have increasingly been dedicated towards the improvement of the information technology infrastructure in the developing countries. This trend is present even in the extremely poor countries. This is being achieved through several channels including multinational investments as well as local investments. To a larger extent the developing countries receive financial aids from the developed economies, in the international arena, to aid in the development of the information systems. This has resulted in increased application of information technology, in the various sectors of the developing economies. There has been an increasing trend in the growth of information systems in the developing countries. The economic development in the modern world lays considerably attributes to the development of information technology. Most of the developed countries make extensive use of technology in undertaking their operations. This is attributed to the existence of well founded infrastructure in the field of information technology. The developing countries are working towards achieving an environment that supports the application of information technology in their various fields of operations.
Information technologies have wide applications in the advancement of service delivery by various institutions. Services can be rendered to the citizens even in the most remote areas by the use of information technologies. The health sector, for instance, makes wide use of information technologies so as to enhance their service delivery.
Information technologies have wide application in the operations of developing countries. These technologies, if properly used, can solve various problems that exist in developing countries. Cultural differences create a divide in the interrelation of the human beings. This creates negative ethnicity among the citizens in the developing economies. Mobile phone is a device in the information technologies that can be used to solve and avoid the cultural divide. Mobile phones have been used to connect people across the cultural divide. These technologies help people understand that they are social beings. This has even been fundamentally enhanced by the use of social network sites.
The world is turning into a digital world where every process of life requires use of information technology in enhancing effective performance. Business sector in the developing economies leads to the application of information technology, in undertaking of the various operations. Services in the banking sector have been automated enhancing banking services to be enjoyed through electronic devices. The growth of the economies in developing countries is attributed to the growth in information technology. China being one of the developing economies enjoys being one of the fastest growing economies. China makes wide use of technology and even earns significantly large revenues through exportation of mobile technologies.
Factors affecting implementation of ISDC
Information systems in the developing countries (ISDC) play a greater role in the performance of the developing economies. Information technology positively influences the performance of organizations in the developing economies. The application of information system has been more eminent in the field of health sector. This triggered the establishment of an information system in the field of health, and it closes the gap in the deficiency of quality services offered under the old system. The system is enhanced through the use of information systems that enhance storing and sharing of electronic data. The impact of information systems has been felt in many sectors of operations.
The performance of any organization is attributed to the advancement in information technologies and systems. Policymakers should focus on implementing strategies that will assist in promoting the application of information systems. Several strategies and policies have been developed setting the stage for the introduction and application of information system for effective performance. Governments in the developing countries have established departments to ensure the safe guarding of the information system. Despite the efforts that have been put to ensure proper functioning of the information systems, developing countries are yet to perform like their counterparts in the developed countries. This may be attributed to the various factors that affect the implementation of the information system. These factors may contribute to either failure or success of the information systems. The absence or presence of these factors may have diverse implications on the performance of the information systems. These factors may either be success factors or failure factors.
Factors affecting the implementation of information system are broad and affect the performance of an organization in different perspectives. In this category of factors, the paper discusses the general environment that may affect the performance of organizations in the implementation of information systems. These factors fall outside the control of the organizations. The management of the organizations in the developing countries cannot be able to change these factors. These factors majorly fall under the control of the government. The government should ensure that stability of these factors is achieved for the proper implementation of the information system. These factors act as success factors in one perspective while, in the other perspective, they work as failure factors.
Economic growth and economy
This is one of the external factors that affect the implementation of the information system. It is an external factor since organizations do not have control over it. Developing countries are struggling to become a hub of economic growth. In most cases, the policies set by developing economies focus on the improvement of economic performance. There exist an immense difference between countries that are developed and those in the process of developing, in terms of the level of economic growth. This may be attributed to the development level in the information system.
It has been argued that the economic status of any given state indicates the level of development of the information system in that country. Economic growth facilitates the development of the information system. This has been facilitated by the desire of organizations and institutions, in their search to gain a competitive advantage over their colleagues within the market. The performance of an organization depends on the effective use of information systems in undertaking of the various transactions.
According to researchers, an advanced and stable economy serves as the foundation of information system. The implementation of information system will, therefore, depend on the level of economic growth. Countries with well advanced economies have well founded information systems. This is contrary to the countries whose economies are not developed. Where the economy is doing well, the implementation of the information system is enhanced. Economy and economic growth can be a success factor or a failure factor depending on the level of economic growth. Countries with fast growing economies, like China, have a better foundation of information system. The performance of organizations and businesses depend on the level information technology.
Most governments both in the developing and developed economies undertake the role of regulating the operations of various sectors within their economies. The interference of the government in the operations and performance of organizations would affect the implementation of strategies in these organizations. Governments have much influence in the implementation of information system.
The development of information system infrastructure can be effected through government interference. The government can develop strategies to build an infrastructure that assists in the use of information technology. The government may also provide funds for the establishment of information technology infrastructure. This facilitates the use of information systems by organizations that may not fully manage the cost of developing such infrastructure. The actions by the government provide a means for effective implementation of information systems.
Governments can also undertake regulations to influence the implementation of information systems. The government of China requires the departments in the government to replace the manual systems of accounting in the auditing field with the accounting software. The regulations by the government affect the implementation of information systems. When such regulations are made, it becomes mandatory for the various organizations and departments to implement such changes. In China, there is a pervasive use of accounting software in the performance of various organizations. Governments should always ensure proper formulation and implementation of strategies to enhance the implementation of information system.
Under this category, the factors that affect the implementation of information system found both within and outside the internal environment are discussed. The factors may be highly influenced by the internal environment. However, some forces within the external environment may have an impact on these factors.